Dutch readers need to be convinced first that planning in the Netherlands is indeed effective before contemplating how this has come about. Our message for both is that, to the extent that Dutch planners do live in what others are inclined to see as a planners' paradise, it is a paradise carefully constructed and maintained by the planners themselves. This smacks of Bernard Shaw describing a profession as a conspiracy against laity.
Geography: Discipline, Profession and Subject since 1870 : An International Survey
However, all knowledge and all technologies are 'socially constructed', meaning that they are the products of people or groups pursuing often conflicting aims and coming to arrangements about what is to pass as 'true' and 'good'. So this takes away the odium of Dutch planners having their own agenda. Positioning ourselves We are in the business of interpreting Dutch planning, and at the same time committed to improving it.
This makes us part of the situation which we describe. This situation is characterized by the existence of two divergent traditions, urban design and the social-science discipline called 'planologie'. Neural Nets: Applications in Geography.
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Neural nets offer a fascinating new strategy for spatial analysis, and their application holds enormous potential for the geographic sciences. However, the number of studies that have utilized these techniques is limited. This lack of interest can be attributed, in part, to lack of exposure, to the use of extensive and often confusing jargon, and to the misapprehension that, without an underlying statistical model, the explanatory power of the neural net is very low. Neural Nets: Applications for Geography attacks all three issues; the text demonstrates a wide variety of neural net applications in geography in a simple manner, with minimal jargon.
The volume presents an introduction to neural nets that describes some of the basic concepts, as well as providing a more mathematical treatise for those wishing further details on neural net architecture. The bulk of the text, however, is devoted to descriptions of neural net applications in such broad-ranging fields as census analysis, predicting the spread of AIDS, describing synoptic controls on mountain snowfall, examining the relationships between atmospheric circulation and tropical rainfall, and the remote sensing of polar cloud and sea ice characteristics.
The text illustrates neural nets employed in modes analogous to multiple regression analysis, cluster analysis, and maximum likelihood classification. Not only are the neural nets shown to be equal or superior to these more conventional methods, particularly where the relationships have a strong nonlinear component, but they are also shown to contain significant explanatory power.
Several chapters demonstrate that the nets themselves can be decomposed to illuminate causative linkages between different events in both the physical and human environments. In The Asian City the Asian urbanisation processes, nature and characteristics of the s have been analyzed by countries, by comparing different countries and in an international context.
The authors are urban specialists from four continents. This work allows the reader to understand Asian urban forms, their evolution, the nature of urbanisation, its impact on economic growth in cities, the living and working conditions of the poor, and urban planning and problems. Corporate Geography examines the spatial structures and behaviour of large business organizations.
Corporations are key operational units of economies. Each corporation has several locations and connections to suppliers and customers who also operate in geographical space. The effectiveness of corporate spatial organizations is of importance for their well-being and for the health of the national and local economies in which they operate. This volume discusses where and why firms locate units of production, sales and control and how these interact with each other, with suppliers and with customers.
The foundations are from commercial geography, business economics and location theory, but there are some unique characteristics. One is the blending of manufacturing and retailing in one treatise. Another is the extensive use of real-company case studies which illustrate both the basic concepts and the inadequacies of existing models. Corporate managers can relate to the experiences of actual companies.
This book is of interest to scientists, researchers and professionals in economic geography, business administration, general management, microeconomies, industrial organization and economic planning. The Construction of Cognitive Maps. The authors present and discuss connectionist models of cognitive maps which are based on local representation, versus models which are based on distributed representation, as well as connectionist models concerning language and spatial relations.
As is well known, Gibson's ecological approach suggests a view on cognition which is diametrically different from the classical main stream view: perception and thus cognition is direct, immediate and needs no internal information processing, and is thus essentially an external process of interaction between an organism and its external environment. The chapter by Harry Heft introduces J. Gibson's ecological approach and its implication to the construction of cognitive maps in general and to the issue of wayfinding in particular.
According to Heft, main stream cognitive sciences are essentially Cartesian in nature and have not as yet internalized the implications of Darwin's theory of evolution. Gibson, in his ecological approach, has tried to do exactly this. The author introduces the basic terminology of the ecological approach and relates its various notions, in particular optic flow, nested hierarchy and affordances, to navigation and the way routes and places in the environment are learned.
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Northern Ireland's problems are rooted in physical and historical geography: small resource base, peripheral location, violent conquest, repression and ruthless emargination of the native population by the Protestant settlers. At the time of partition, many areas already had a Catholic majority, and the Catholic population is increasing faster, thereby undermining the Protestant position.
Britain gains no advantage by keeping Northern Ireland. Nevertheless, this solution is not going to be cheap, not merely because of opposition by Protestant loyalists, but also because of the economic weakness of both Irelands. Unlike other books on the subject, this one goes to the heart of the matter: Britain would be serving her own interest by easing reunification of Ireland, albeit gradually and cautiously. In this perspective, the conclusion is that history is inexorably moving beyond Northern Ireland. Audience: European Community administrators and planners, diplomats, politicians, students in Political Science, Economics, History and Geography.
This book introduces the ten nation region of Southeast Asia: The main themes of the book are diversity, differential development and changing socio-economic and political setting affecting these characteristics in the s.
The nations of Southeast Asia have different languages, three dominant religions - Buddhism, Islam and Christianity, varied levels of economic development that range from bare agricultural subsistence to highly urbanized and highly developed. The historically based core areas of these countries have evolved on their own. Moreover, the effects of Indian, Chinese, Islamic, and Western cultures have been experienced differently in different nations at different times in their histories. This book is intended to be understood by all those who want an initial introduction to Southeast Asia.
As many aspects of the book are the result of an in-depth research, carried out by the contributing authors, it is also a valuable reference. The contributing authors have portrayed the basic spatial aspects of the region as well as their relevance in the s based in novel ways and through original interpretations. All fIrst and some second authors of chapters are professors. All but one have Ph. Most contributing authors are geographers but with different sub-specialties: P.
Species Survival in Fragmented Landscapes. The effects of isolation, area size, and habitat quality on the survival of animal and plant populations in the cultural landscape are central aspects of a research project started in Germany in ,Forschungsverbund, Isolation, FHichengroBe und BiotopquaIiHit', abbreviated to 'FIFB'.
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After a long period of preparation, scientists from seven univer sities and one research institution started to work within the frame of this project. A strong focus of the project has been the improvement of the methodology for environmental impact assessments and the implementation of results into environmental planning. As there is a certain risk that national projects develop some kind of 'mental in breeding', it was decided to discuss concepts, methods, and first results with scientists of international reputation at a rather early stage of the project.
For this purpose, an inter national workshop was held in the small village of Lubast, north of Leipzig state of Saxony in March Papers presented there formed the basis for this book. As discussions included general reviews as well as particular case studies, we decided to structure this book in a similar way.
Consequently, a combination of broad and more general, review-like papers as well as original papers are presented.
kinun-houju.com/wp-content/bojujuqyc/4516.php The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius B. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning.
The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the s, while G.
Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U.
- Stephen Langton: Erzbischof von Canterbury im England der Magna Carta (1207-1228) (Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions, 144).
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The publication of this book was made possible by to the efforts of the contributing authors. Several other persons have provided invaluable support for the workshop or the preparation of this volume.
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One of these is Patsy Healey for her fascinating challenge to Andreas Faludi's most recent arguments about rational planning theory. Another is John Friedmann whose lecture at the workshop presented world future scenarios depicting interaction between economic growth, social justice and ecological balance.
Angela Barbanente provided marvelous support in organizing the workshop and editorial advice in the preparation of this volume. Jeremy Franks carefully improved the English and the clarity of all the papers. Carmelo Torre made a final editing of texts and images. We owe thanks to Maurizio Raeli for providing all the support services during the workshop and Claudia Baublys for her excellent help with various administrative issues with regard to the workshop and publication of this book.
Regional Hydrological Response to Climate Change. The book consists mostly of peer-reviewed papers delivered at the Working Group's first three scientific meetings held in Washington, D. These have been supplemented by a few additional chapters that have been specifically commissioned in order to give a well-rounded coverage of the global and scientific aspects of the topic. As editors, we have sought to balance state-of-the-art reviews of methodology and regional research with detailed studies of specific countries and river basins.
In the spirit of the IGU, we have devoted particular effort to encouraging contributions from scientists in the non-English-speaking world.
These chapters provide valuable evidence of recent climatic change and predictions of future hydrological impacts from parts of the world where little detailed work has been conducted hitherto. They provide much valuable information that is new and interesting to an international audience and is otherwise very difficult or impossible to acquire.