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There are numerous global and industry standards and regulations mandating information security practices for organizations. Information privacy , or data privacy is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data and the public expectation of privacy. The safeguarding of personal data is the objective i. There are various legal, regulatory, political, and technological issues surrounding the issue of data privacy. Enterprise Information Management is one of the most important tools for meeting compliance goals, and should be central to your data protection strategy.

Securing content at rest starts with identifying where sensitive information resides within your content management system as well as in file servers and personal storage repositories across the organization. Once sensitive content is discovered it can be defended using core capabilities of Enterprise Information Management solutions including:. Securing content at rest is a must but alone it is not enough. To deliver its business value, information needs to be accessed, collaborated on, and shared.

A comprehensive information security program needs to consider securing content in motion and securing content in use. There are numerous features and controls within Enterprise Information Management solutions to meet these objectives:. Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability are widely accepted as the Information Security Triad , describing the three core objectives of information security. All OpenText products, solutions, and services are designed, developed, and maintained with security in mind, to provide our customers with assurance that their important assets and information are protected at all times.

Confidentiality is the application of rules that limits access to information. Confidential information has the highest risk of being compromised with employee records, customer records, and intellectual property being the most impacted by security incidents. A powerful, fully integrated document management system that delivers the essential capabilities for managing business-critical documents. Whereas most GIAC certifications can be achieved by passing a single multiple-choice exam, the GSE exam includes both a multiple-choice component and a hands-on lab.

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SANS offers four levels of certifications, including introductory, intermediate, advanced and expert. That said, GIAC highly recommends SANS training courses, especially for candidates who don't have adequate hands-on experience and aren't able to self-study. Once an application has been approved, candidates have four months to attempt the associated exam. GIAC does not administer exams immediately upon conclusion of a training event; candidates must wait at least seven days to sit for the exam.

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To remain certified, credential holders must renew their GIAC certifications every four years by earning 36 continuing professional education CPE credits. CPE credits may be earned by completing approved training or certifications, participating in continuing education, publishing a technical paper, completing certain graduate-level courses, getting community or work experience or participating in cyber range activities.

GIAC-certified professionals work as security analysts or specialists two of the most common roles , information security engineers, network security admins, database administrators, developers, forensic specialists, risk managers and auditors. Large organizations with security operations centers SOCs need SOC analysts, engineers and supervisors, as well as directors of cybersecurity. A bevy of companies also hire employees and consultants who perform incident response, penetration testing and the like.

Security Risk and the Software Supply Chain

Second, the choice of countermeasures controls used to manage risks must strike a balance between productivity, cost, effectiveness of the countermeasure, and the value of the informational asset being protected. Risk analysis and risk evaluation processes have their limitations since, when security incidents occur, they emerge in a context, and their rarity and uniqueness give rise to unpredictable threats. The analysis of these phenomena, which are characterized by breakdowns, surprises and side-effects, requires a theoretical approach that is able to examine and interpret subjectively the detail of each incident.

Risk is the likelihood that something bad will happen that causes harm to an informational asset or the loss of the asset. A vulnerability is a weakness that could be used to endanger or cause harm to an informational asset. A threat is anything man-made or act of nature that has the potential to cause harm. The likelihood that a threat will use a vulnerability to cause harm creates a risk. When a threat does use a vulnerability to inflict harm, it has an impact. In the context of information security, the impact is a loss of availability, integrity, and confidentiality, and possibly other losses lost income, loss of life, loss of real property.

The remaining risk is called "residual risk. A risk assessment is carried out by a team of people who have knowledge of specific areas of the business. Membership of the team may vary over time as different parts of the business are assessed. The assessment may use a subjective qualitative analysis based on informed opinion, or where reliable dollar figures and historical information is available, the analysis may use quantitative analysis.

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Research has shown that the most vulnerable point in most information systems is the human user, operator, designer, or other human. In broad terms, the risk management process consists of: [43] [44]. For any given risk, management can choose to accept the risk based upon the relative low value of the asset, the relative low frequency of occurrence, and the relative low impact on the business. Or, leadership may choose to mitigate the risk by selecting and implementing appropriate control measures to reduce the risk.

In some cases, the risk can be transferred to another business by buying insurance or outsourcing to another business. In such cases leadership may choose to deny the risk. Selecting and implementing proper security controls will initially help an organization bring down risk to acceptable levels. Control selection should follow and should be based on the risk assessment.

Controls can vary in nature, but fundamentally they are ways of protecting the confidentiality, integrity or availability of information. Organizations can implement additional controls according to requirement of the organization. Administrative controls consist of approved written policies, procedures, standards and guidelines. Administrative controls form the framework for running the business and managing people. They inform people on how the business is to be run and how day-to-day operations are to be conducted. Laws and regulations created by government bodies are also a type of administrative control because they inform the business.

Other examples of administrative controls include the corporate security policy, password policy , hiring policies, and disciplinary policies.

Administrative controls form the basis for the selection and implementation of logical and physical controls. Logical and physical controls are manifestations of administrative controls, which are of paramount importance. Logical controls also called technical controls use software and data to monitor and control access to information and computing systems. Passwords, network and host-based firewalls, network intrusion detection systems, access control lists , and data encryption are examples of logical controls.

An important logical control that is frequently overlooked is the principle of least privilege, which requires that an individual, program or system process not be granted any more access privileges than are necessary to perform the task. Violations of this principle can also occur when an individual collects additional access privileges over time.

This happens when employees' job duties change, employees are promoted to a new position, or employees are transferred to another department.

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The access privileges required by their new duties are frequently added onto their already existing access privileges, which may no longer be necessary or appropriate. Physical controls monitor and control the environment of the work place and computing facilities. They also monitor and control access to and from such facilities and include doors, locks, heating and air conditioning, smoke and fire alarms, fire suppression systems, cameras, barricades, fencing, security guards, cable locks, etc.

Separating the network and workplace into functional areas are also physical controls. An important physical control that is frequently overlooked is separation of duties, which ensures that an individual can not complete a critical task by himself. For example, an employee who submits a request for reimbursement should not also be able to authorize payment or print the check.

An applications programmer should not also be the server administrator or the database administrator ; these roles and responsibilities must be separated from one another. Information security must protect information throughout its lifespan, from the initial creation of the information on through to the final disposal of the information.

The information must be protected while in motion and while at rest. During its lifetime, information may pass through many different information processing systems and through many different parts of information processing systems. There are many different ways the information and information systems can be threatened. To fully protect the information during its lifetime, each component of the information processing system must have its own protection mechanisms.

The building up, layering on and overlapping of security measures is called "defense in depth. Recall the earlier discussion about administrative controls, logical controls, and physical controls. The three types of controls can be used to form the basis upon which to build a defense in depth strategy. With this approach, defense in depth can be conceptualized as three distinct layers or planes laid one on top of the other. Additional insight into defense in depth can be gained by thinking of it as forming the layers of an onion, with data at the core of the onion, people the next outer layer of the onion, and network security , host-based security and application security forming the outermost layers of the onion.

Both perspectives are equally valid, and each provides valuable insight into the implementation of a good defense in depth strategy. An important aspect of information security and risk management is recognizing the value of information and defining appropriate procedures and protection requirements for the information.

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Not all information is equal and so not all information requires the same degree of protection. This requires information to be assigned a security classification. The first step in information classification is to identify a member of senior management as the owner of the particular information to be classified.

Next, develop a classification policy. The policy should describe the different classification labels, define the criteria for information to be assigned a particular label, and list the required security controls for each classification. Some factors that influence which classification information should be assigned include how much value that information has to the organization, how old the information is and whether or not the information has become obsolete. Laws and other regulatory requirements are also important considerations when classifying information.

The Information Systems Audit and Control Association ISACA and its Business Model for Information Security also serves as a tool for security professionals to examine security from a systems perspective, creating an environment where security can be managed holistically, allowing actual risks to be addressed.